Galatians 3 - Outline of Galatians (MENU page)
III. Doctrinal explanation - 2:15- 4:31
Justification is by Grace through Faith.
A. The experience of Jewish Apostles, 2:15-21
     Peter and Paul were saved by Grace through faith, apart from works of law.
B. The experience of the gentile Galatians, 3:1-5
1. O foolish {GK=anoetos, mindless, unthinking} Galatians,
who hath bewitched
{ie., charmed with evil intent, fascinated} you,
that ye should not obey
{GK=peitho, be convinced of, agree with} the truth, (cp. Gal 1:6; 5:7,8)
before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been evidently set forth, crucified among you?
2 This only would I learn of you,
Received ye the Spirit by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?
3 Are ye so foolish? having begun in the Spirit, are ye now made perfect by the flesh?
4 Have ye suffered so many things in vain? if [it be] yet in vain.
5 He therefore that ministereth to you the Spirit, and worketh miracles among you,
[doeth he it] by the works of the law, or by the hearing of faith?
...who has [dissuaded you from the truth]...before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been evidently set forth, crucified among you?
The Galatian believers had been easily persuaded to abandon the true Gospel, even though it had been clearly presented to them...
  • they had heard Paul's preaching of 'Christ crucified' (1Cor 1:23,24; 2:2; 11:26).
  • they had seen Paul's living as 'crucified with Christ' (Gal 2:20). Paul, the former Pharisee, was dead to his fleshly self-righteousnesses, because he was identified with Christ, in His death and resurrection.
  • they had witnessed Paul's suffering of persecution for proclaiming the Gospel of Christ (2Cor 4:5-11).
This only would I learn of you...-
The word for 'learn' {GK=manthano, understand} is related to the word for 'disciple' {GK=mathetes}.
With a tinge of sarcasm, Paul asks to be instructed {discipled} in the new 'gospel' which has captured their minds.
To that end, he asks his 'teachers' several questions...
  1. Received ye the Spirit by works of law {definite articles are not present}, or by the hearing of faith {lit., by hearing with faith}?
    The gift of the Holy Spirit cannot be earned or purchased (cp. Acts 8:20).
    The gift is received "by hearing with faith" (Rom 10:17). At the moment that they place their faith in Jesus Christ, believers are indwelt, sealed, and baptized by the Holy Spirit, into the body of Christ (Acts 10:42-44; 1Cor 12:13; Eph 1:13,14).
    It is through simple faith in Christ, that believers are born of God's Spirit as His children (Joh 1:12,13; 3:5-7; Rom 8:5-9).
  2. Are ye so foolish {ie., unthinking}? Having begun in the Spirit, are ye now made perfect by the flesh?
    ie., Do you imagine, that by your own efforts, you can complete what only the Holy Spirit could begin? cp. Php 1:6
    If salvation is the work of God's Spirit, can sanctification be the work of your sinful flesh?
  3. Have ye suffered so many things in vain {ie., for no purpose}?
    Faced with persecution, you willingly paid a price for the truth, when you first trusted Christ. Was all of that for nothing? Have the things you once believed become worthless to you? cp. Heb 10:32-39; 2Pet 2:20-22
  4. He... that ministereth {adds, supplies} to you the Spirit, and worketh miracles among you...
    ...doeth he it by works of law, or by hearing with faith? {same wording as in v.2}
    There may be two applications to this question.
    1. Was Paul's ministry energized by his fleshly efforts, or due to his faith in God and His Word? (It was through Paul's preaching, that the Holy Spirit had brought them to faith in Christ.) eg., Acts 14:3,9-10; 19:11,12; 1Cor 2:1-5; 2Cor 12:12
    2. Had God supplied His Spirit for the work among them, because of their fleshly works, or due to their faith in His Word? 1Cor 1:4,5; 12:6,11
      This second point is probably the primary application, because the word for 'ministereth' {GK=epichoregeo, supply, nourishment, add} is only used a few times in the NT, and in those places, the Lord is usually the active agent. See the other occurrences: 2Cor 9:10 (ministereth); Col 2:19 (nourishment ministered) ; 2Pet 1:5 (add), 1:11 (ministered)
This last question is answered, as it flows into the next verse.
"...doeth he it by works of law, or by hearing with faith? Even as {according to the way} Abraham believed God..."
     In the last portion of ch. 2, Paul cited the experience of the apostles. In the first few verses of ch. 3, he cited the experience of the Galatians. Experience is valuable, but also variable. It cannot form the basis for doctrine. Therefore, Paul presses his argument, that justification is by Grace through faith, by turning to the scriptures. Because his readers were in need of 'hearing with faith,' he would cause them to hear God's Word.
 
III. Doctrinal explanation - 2:15- 4:31
Justification is by Grace through Faith.
C. The example of Abraham, 3:6-29
     1. God's Promise Believed: Believer Justified, 3:6-9
6. Even as Abraham believed God, and it was accounted to him for righteousness.
7 Know ye therefore that they which are of faith, the same are the children of Abraham.
8 And the scripture, foreseeing that God would justify the heathen through faith,
preached before the gospel unto Abraham, [saying],
In thee shall all nations be blessed.
9 So then they which be of faith are blessed with faithful
{ie., believing} Abraham.
...Abraham believed God... it was accounted to him for righteousness.- (Gen 15:5,6)
How was Abraham declared righteous? By faith, apart from works. Rom 4:1-5
When was Abraham declared righteous? Before the rite of circumcision, and before the Law was established. Rom 4:9-13
What did Abraham believe? The promises of God. Rom 4:18-22
...they which are of faith, the same are the children {lit., sons} of Abraham.
In what sense? In that they follow Abraham's example, and are declared righteous on the basis of faith. Rom 4:23-25
...In thee shall all nations be blessed.
This is one of several points of the Abrahamic Covenant (Gen 12:1-3,7).
God's blessing to Abraham would overflow to all nations (not only to the nation of his physical descendants), because God would send the Savior through Abraham's line, and because salvation would be made accessible to all, as it was to him, by Grace through faith.
...the scripture... preached before the gospel unto Abraham... In thee shall all nations be blessed.-
God told Abraham, twice, that the nations would be blessed through him. The second occasion was immediately following Abraham's offering of Isaac (Gen 22:16-18). It was here that God preached the Gospel to Abraham. The ram caught in the thicket, which became the substitute for Abraham's son, foreshadowed the day when God would "provide Himself a Lamb." On that same Mt. Moriah, God "spared not His own Son" (Rom 8:32). Abraham believed that God would have raised Isaac from the dead, for he was the son of promise. God apparently enabled Abraham to understand that His Son would also arise to fulfill all of His promises (Heb 11:17-19; Joh 8:56-58).
So then they which be of faith are blessed with faithful {ie., believing} Abraham.
Scripture clearly shows that those, who believe, like Abraham, are blessed with righteousness, by Grace through faith.
 
C. The example of Abraham, 3:6-29
2. The Law Unkept: Sinner Cursed (the Law cannot justify), 3:10-12
10 For as many as are of the works of the law are under the curse: for it is written,
Cursed [is] every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them.
11 But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, [it is] evident:
for, The just shall live by faith.
12 And the law is not of faith: but, The man that doeth them shall live in them.
For {but, yet} as many as are of the works of the law {lit., works of law} are under the curse...
While faith brings blessing, reliance upon 'works of law' brings a curse.
Paul quotes OT scripture to demonstrate his point...
  • 'Cursed is every one that continueth not in all things which are written in the book of the law to do them' (Deu 27:26).
    The Law is good. It is not flawed, but we are. We fall short of God's standard of righteousness.
    To be righteous according to the Law, a man must remain in perfect compliance on every point.
    Therefore, to approach God, on the basis of Law, is to be condemned. Rom 7:9-13; Jam 2:9-11
  • ...no man is justified by the law... for, 'The just shall live by faith' (Hab 2:4).
    Habakkuk wrote long after the Law was given. Thus, this statement shows that it was never God's intent that men should earn eternal life by works of law. Only the just {righteous} shall live. True righteousness belongs to those who trust the Righteous One to supply their lack. The righteousness of humble faith is in stark contrast with the self-righteousness of man's pride (the soul 'lifted up').
  • ...the law is not of faith... 'The man that doeth them shall live in them' (Lev 18:5).
    Law and Faith are conflicting principles. The Law was not meant to bring life.
    The Law says 'Do and live.' But no man can do what it requires.
    God says 'Trust Me and live.' He has done all, to meet our need. Rom 10:5-10
 
C. The example of Abraham, 3:6-29
3. The Curse Borne by Christ: Promise Confirmed, 3:13-14
13 Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us:
for it is written, Cursed [is] every one that hangeth on a tree:
14 That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ;
that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith.
...Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree (Deu 21:23).
Christ purchased our redemption from the curse of sin, by bearing our sin and condemnation in Himself, upon the cross. Crucifixion was a Roman invention, unknown in OT times. In ancient Israel, capital punishment was accomplished by stoning the condemned person to death. However, after the sentence was executed, sometimes the criminal's body was hung on a tree as an example to others. The quoted verse refers to that additional shaming (Deu 21:21-23). Our Lord Jesus Christ, bore the shame of our sin and condemnation, so that we might be blessed with His righteousness and life, through the indwelling Holy Spirit.
that the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ... through faith.
Jesus Christ did the work. He accomplished everything that needed to be done.
It remains for me to trust Him, to be blessed with imputed righteousness, just as Abraham was (v.6).
...that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. (This answers the question of v.2.)
This blessing comes through faith in Jesus Christ.
 
C. The example of Abraham, 3:6-29
4. The Promise Confirmed: Unaffected by the Law, 3:15-18
15 Brethren, I speak after the manner of men;
Though [it be] but a man's covenant
{ie., legal contract, agreement},
yet [if it be] confirmed
{GK=kuroo, validated, ratified},
no man disannulleth
{ie., makes void, cancels its value},
or addeth thereto
{GK=epidiatasso, arrange in addition, modify, make amendment}.
16 Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made.
He saith not, And to seeds, as of many;
but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.
17 And this I say, [that] the covenant,
that was confirmed before
{GK=prokuroo, previously validated} of God in Christ,
the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, cannot disannul,
that it should make the promise of none effect.
18 For if the inheritance [be] of the law, [it is] no more of promise:
but God gave [it] to Abraham by promise.
Here, Paul explains the permanence of God's covenant to Abraham (which includes the promise of 'righteousness by faith').
God confirmed His promises to Abraham by 'cutting a covenant' (Gen 15:6-18). Abraham was very familiar with this ceremony, where animals were cut in half and the parties of the covenant walked together between the pieces. By doing so, the parties bound themselves with the oath of a blood covenant. In effect they were saying, 'If either of us violates the promises which we have made here, let it be done to him, as to these animals.'
     However, in this case, only God walked between the pieces... signifying that He was taking upon Himself the full responsibility of keeping His covenant. When Isaac was born, Abraham saw that God was indeed fulfilling His promises. Following Abraham's offering of Isaac, God re-affirmed His promises which He had previously sworn to Abraham (Gen 22:15-18). The ultimate fulfillment of these promises would be through the promised 'seed'...
He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.
Christ is the Messiah, the Anointed One, by whom all of God's promises would be fulfilled. 2Cor 1:20; Rom 15:8,9
He is the Lamb of God, who was provided at Mt. Moriah, the seed through whom all nations would be blessed. Gen 22:8,14,18; Isa 49:6; Joh 1:29
...the covenant that was 'confirmed before' of God in Christ...
The promises which Christ would fulfill were 'previously validated' to Abraham, by God, when He swore by Himself that He would fulfill them. The covenant which God made with Abraham, was not invalidated or modified in any way, by the Law which was given 430 years after the promise was confirmed to Abraham. The ultimate confirmation of God's Covenant of Promise was in the blood of Christ (1Cor 11:25).
  • God's promise to Abraham spoke of the Gospel of Christ (v.8).
  • God's promise pre-dated the Law.
  • God's promise was not pre-empted by the Law.
  • God's promise was further confirmed by Christ, who fulfilled the Law, and whose blood satisfied the Law. The One who walked between the halves, paid the price of our failure to fulfill the Law's demands, to secure the Promise of righteousness for all who believe (v.13,14).
...if the inheritance be of the law, it is no more of promise... but God gave it... by promise. cp. Gal 2:21; Rom 4:13-16
The word 'inheritance' {GK=kleronomia, allotment, promised possession} is used frequently in the NT. In modern English usage, an inheritance usually refers to possessions passed down to heirs, upon the death of the previous owners. It is seldom used in this way in the NT.
     In the passage before us, 'the inheritance' refers to that which God has promised to those who believe. In the context of this chapter, the promised possession includes: Righteousness (v.6), Life (v.11), and the Holy Spirit (v.14; Eph 1:13,14).
 
C. The example of Abraham, 3:6-29
5. The purpose of the Law, 3:19-25
19. Wherefore then [serveth] the law?
It was added because of transgressions,
till the seed should come to whom the promise was made;
[and it was] ordained by angels in the hand of a mediator.
20 Now a mediator is not [a mediator] of one, but God is one.
21 [Is] the law then against the promises of God? God forbid:
for if there had been a law given which could have given life,
verily righteousness should have been by the law.
22 But the scripture hath concluded all under sin,
that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe.
23 But before faith came, we were kept under the law,
shut up unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed.
24 Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster [to bring us] unto Christ,
that we might be justified by faith.
25 But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster.
Wherefore then serveth the Law?...
If the Law cannot make a man righteous, what is the purpose of the Law?
...It was added {GK=prostithemi, placed beside}...
The word 'added' here is different than in v.15. The Law was not an 'addendum' or 'amendment' to God's Covenant with Abraham. The Law did not change God's promises to those who believe. However, the Law was 'placed beside' the Promises, to accomplish complementary purposes (eg., v.21-24).
The Law was added...
  • ...because of transgressions...-
    -- The Law restrains evil, protecting society from overt effects of ungodliness. 1Tim 1:8-10
    -- The Law convicts of sin, showing individuals their need for salvation. Rom 3:19,20; 5:20; 7:7-13
  • ...till the seed should come to whom the promise was made...
    -- The Law was temporary, its purpose would be fulfilled with the coming of the Seed to whom the promise was made, and by whom it was 'confirmed' or fulfilled. The specific promise in view, in the context, is the promise of righteousness by faith which is accompanied by the gift of the Holy Spirit (v.13,14; 4:4,5).
         The Law is no longer needed to restrain and convict sinful men, when their hearts are transformed with a new nature that knows and pursues God's will in every matter. This inner transformation will charaterize those who enter the Messiah's Kingdom of Righteousness and Peace (eg., Isa 11:9; Jer 31:31-34).
  • ...ordained {GK=diatasso, arranged} by angels in the hand of a mediator. cp. Acts 7:53
    ...Now a mediator is not a mediator of one, but God is One.-
    A mediator negotiates between two parties of a contract, to ensure that each party fulfills its obligations.
    The Law was such a contract. Moses was a mediator.
         God said, 'If you will obey, I will...'
         The people said, 'All that the LORD hath spoken, we will do' (Ex 19:5-8). But they failed to do.
    -- The Law cannot save sinners, because we cannot satisfy its demands.
    But the Covenant of Promise to Abraham (and to all who believe) rests upon God alone... and is completely fulfilled in the Person and work of the God/man, Jesus Christ (1Tim 2:5,6).
Is the law then against the promises of God? God forbid...
The principles of Law and Promise were both established by God. But they have different purposes.
...for if there had been a law given which could have given life, verily righteousness should have been by the law.
The Law cannot make a man righteous. Instead, it condemns our sin and demonstrates our need for the Savior. Eze 18:20
If it had been possible... there would have been no need for the Savior's sacrifice. Mat 26:39; Rom 3:23-26
...the scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe.
Paul may be referring to the full testimony of the OT scriptures, in condemnation against sin (eg., Paul quotes numerous OT passages, to this effect, in Rom 3:9-20.)
     On the other hand, Paul may be focusing on a specific scriptural passage (Deu 27:26), which he had previously quoted in this chapter (v.10), to emphasize that the Law requires obedience in "all" points. Since no man can meet this standard, the Law condemns "all."
...But before faith came, we were kept under the law, shut up unto the faith which should afterwards be revealed.
The Law was a fence around those who would believe, to preserve them until God's time came to reveal 'the faith' (ie., the Gospel, Gal 1:11,12).
     The word translated 'concluded' and 'shut up' {GK=sunkleio, inclosed together} is 'concluded' in Rom 11:32, which declares that God has inclosed both Jew and Gentile in the same condition (sin and unbelief), in order that they might see His mercy, through faith in Christ.
     Yet, while all stand condemned before God, the Law had special application to the Jews, for the Law was given to them. Note Paul's careful use of the pronouns 'we' (v.23-25, ie., 'we Jews' 2:15,16) and 'you' (v.26-29, referring to all believers, including gentiles).
Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith.
The word for 'schoolmaster' {GK=paidagogos, child guardian} refers to a servant, who watched over young children to protect their moral and physical well-being as they grew up. In modern usage, 'pedagogue' refers to a strict teacher. However, in Paul's day, this servant was not the child's teacher, although he exercised discipline as needed, and he ensured that the child received basic education in a local school or under a qualified teacher. When (at the father's discretion) the child was ready, the guardian would bring him to his father, who would finish his preparations, perhaps with an apprenticeship to the family business. At that point, the servant's responsibility ended.
     Likewise, the purpose of the Law was to exercise temporary discipline, until the time was right to bring us to Christ, in whom "we 'might' be justified by faith." (A schoolmaster could not ensure that a child would pursue the opportunities opened to him. Similarly, the Law leads a person to justification by faith, but cannot guarantee that end. Once presented with the promise of life in Christ, the promise is effective only for 'as many as' place their trust in Him. Joh 1:12)
 
C. The example of Abraham, 3:6-29
6. The position of Believers, 3:26- 4:20
     a. Children of God: Heirs of the Promise, 3:26-29
26 For ye are all the children {GK=huios, sons} of God by faith in Christ Jesus.
27 For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ.
28 There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female:
for ye are all one in Christ Jesus.
29 And if ye [be] Christ's,
then are ye Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise.
For ye are all the children {GK=huios, sons} of God by faith in Christ Jesus...
The apostle John used similar language to speak of 'born again' believers. However, John chose another word to emphasize the new birth, by which believers become God's 'little children' {GK=teknon, born ones}. It is to be expected that aspects of God's nature will be seen in the lives of His 'born ones' (eg., 1Joh 2:1,12; 3:7-9,18; 4:4). In some places, in the KJV, this GK word {GK=teknon} is rendered as 'sons,' although it would be more consistent to read 'children' or 'born ones' (eg., Joh 1:12,13; 1Joh 3:1).
     Here, in Galatians ch. 3-4, Paul uses the word 'sons' {GK=huios, mature sons} to develop his analogy that a child is placed under a 'schoolmaster' {child guardian} for a limited time. Upon reaching a certain level of maturity, he would be transferred from the care of a guardian, and enter into a position of privilege and responsibility as a 'son' of his father. This change of status from 'child' to 'son' was referred to as 'adoption' {GK=huiosthesia, placing as a son} (Gal 4:1-5).
     In modern usage, the word 'adoption' refers to bringing a child into the family of another set of parents, who are not his or her birth parents. In the NT, this is never the meaning of 'adoption.' The only entrance into God's family is by new birth. God has not 'adopted' any children. All of His children 'must be born again' with His nature, by His Spirit. We cannot be His children, unless our old nature (received from Adam) has been crucified with Christ, and we have been raised with Him into 'newness of life' (Rom 6:1-5; Gal 2:20).
     In ch. 4, Paul will address what it means to be 'placed as a son' of God. Although the present state of every believer is imperfect and immature, God's purpose is to bring all of His children to maturity, in the likeness of Christ (Rom 8:28,29). This process of maturation is called 'sanctification.' This is not a work which we can accomplish within ourselves (v.3). It is a work which God is doing, through His Word and by His Spirit, in the hearts of those who trust Him. This work will be completed when Christ returns for His own (1Joh 3:1,2).
 
Here, Paul uses the word 'sons' {GK=huios, mature sons} in reference to God's born again children. His point is - that from the moment of faith, God's children are destined to become mature sons, over whom the 'schoolmaster' has no jurisdiction (v.24,25).
Paul directs this point to readers, who had previously made a profession of faith.
For ye are all the children {GK=huios, sons} of God by faith in Christ Jesus (v.26).
It is through faith in Christ that we receive the new nature, which is characterized by righteousness, eternal life, and the indwelling Holy Spirit.
For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ.
Water baptism is not in view here. 'Baptism into Christ' is the work of the Holy Spirit, by which the believer is identified with Christ, in His death and in His Life (Rom 6:4; 1Cor 12:13).
Christ lives in us, and we live in Him. We have put on {ie., have been clothed in} His righteousness. (cp. Rom 13:14)
There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye are all one in Christ Jesus.
All believers are accepted before God on the same ground: the Person and Work of Christ. There is no 'respect of persons' with God. There are no class divisions within the family of God. Together, we are His own holy people, set apart from the ungodly world, by the new nature which He has placed within us. (Gal 6:15, where 'a new creature' refers to the new nature received at one's 'new birth.')
And if ye be Christ's, then are ye Abraham's seed, and heirs according to the promise.
'The seed' of Abraham who would fulfill the Promise, is Christ.
By faith in Him, the redeemed are the seed of Christ (Isa 53:10,11; Psa 22:30,31).
Therefore, believers are heirs of the Promise of Righteousness by faith, which was given to Abraham (v.6, 16-17).
 

Side Note - Regarding Abraham's seed and promises -
The inheritance (v.18) belongs to the heirs {GK=kleronomos, those designated to obtain the promised possession}. Christ is the heir of all things (Heb 1:1,2). Believers, being in Him, possess all things (Rom 8:32; 1Cor 8:6). Considering such verses, some think that Paul was teaching that Christians (the Church) have displaced the people of Israel as the rightful heirs to the promises which were made to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob.
     However, such an interpretation forgets that God's promises to Abraham and his physical descendants were 'an everlasting covenant' (Gen 17:7,19). That view also disregards the testimony of God through all of the OT prophets, that despite the failure of Israel, He would regather them from wherever He had scattered them, and restore them to their land and under their King. Even in unbelief, the nation of Israel bears passive witness to the Lord, for when His promises are brought to completion, Israel and all nations will "know and believe Me, and understand that I am He..." (eg., Isa 43:1-13; Jer 31:31-37; Eze ch. 36-37).
     Paul himself taught that Israel would be restored and delivered, "for the gifts and calling of God are without repentance" (Rom 11:25-29). God will not change His mind or modify His promises. In His time, God will lift Israel's blindness, they will receive their Messiah, and He will fulfill every word of God's unconditional promises to their fathers.
     In the context of Galatians, 'the inheritance' involves that portion of the Abrahamic Covenant which states "In thee shall all nations be blessed" (v.8). Paul has identified that blessing as the Righteousness which is by faith in the promised Seed, the Lord Jesus Christ.
     Paul's discussion has excluded other aspects of the Abrahamic Covenant, such as 'a great nation... a great name... a land' (eg., Gen 12:1-3,7). These and other promises to Israel (eg., the Davidic Covenant, eg., Isa 9:6,7; Jer 33:20,21) will be brought to completion by our Savior at His return to earth. The inheritance of the church is heavenly (1Pet 1:3-5). Our great hope and expectation is to 'ever be with the Lord' (1The 4:16,17). From the time that He comes 'in the air' for the church, we will be with Him wherever He is. Therefore, the Church will have a part in the Davidic Kingdom of the Messiah, but in that kingdom God's long standing promises to Israel will be fully realized.
     [For further discussion of the distinctions between Israel and the Church, see Rightly Dividing the Word of Truth', Chapter 1, 'The Jew, the Gentile and the Church']

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