|Law (confidence in works of the flesh)||Grace (faith in God's promise)|
|Abraham had two sons... v.22|
...son of a bondmaid (female slave)
(Ishmael, son of Hagar the slave)
...son of a freewoman
(Isaac, son of Abraham's wife Sarah)
|v.23 ...born of the flesh -|
The scheme by which Abraham had a son with Hagar was a completely fleshly idea, born of impatience at waiting for the son which God had promised. Gen 16:2-5
|...born of promise (totally dependent upon God's Word)-|
The birth of Isaac, was long promised. It was impossible for Abraham and Sarah to do what only God could do. Gen 17:15-19; 18:10-14; 21:1,2; Rom 4:17-22
|Paul has stated the basic facts in the historic account, to highlight 'the works of the flesh' versus 'faith in God's promise.'||Now, he applies those two conflicting principles...|
|These illustrate the two covenants...|
v.24-25 - the Mosaic Covenant... (from Mt. Sinai, where the Law was given-- a dreadful place of death, and separation from God's Presence, Heb 12:18-21) ...is pictured by Hagar (in Paul's allegory), and corresponds to present (earthly) Jerusalem, with its ritualistic legalism...
...which 'gendereth to bondage' (ie., slaves beget slaves). Those who are under the Law are in slavery. Gal 4:3,9
v.26-27 - the new covenant, from 'Jerusalem which is above' (the heavenly Jerusalem, Zion, from where the Savior came, where believers rejoice in His Presence, Heb 12:22-24). This Jerusalem is mother of all who are free by faith (Rom 4:16,22-25; Gal 4:4-6).
For it is written... (Paul quotes Isa 54:1-5) which speaks of Israel's restoration in the Messianic Kingdom (the ultimate fulfillment of God's promises).
|Paul's point . . .||v.28 Now we, brethren, as Isaac was, are the children of promise.|
|v.29 But as then... he that was born after the flesh persecuted him that was born after the spirit (Gen 21:9)...||...even so it is now, Gal 5:11; 6:12-14|
|v.30 Cast out the bondwoman and her son (Gen 21:10-12).||...the heir is the son of the freewoman. Gal 4:7|
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