Ephesians 4:1-32 - Outline of Ephesians (Menu page)
1. I therefore, the prisoner of the Lord, beseech you
that ye walk worthy of the vocation wherewith ye are called,
2. With all lowliness and meekness, with longsuffering,
forbearing one another in love;
3 Endeavouring to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace.
I therefore...- ie., based on the things presented in ch. 1-3...
beseech you...- This is not a command of the Law, but an appeal based on Love (cp. Rom 12:1,2).
walk worthy of the vocation {GK=klesis, calling} wherewith ye are called {GK=kaleo}...-
What is this calling?
  • The position to which we have been raised, to heavenly blessings in Christ (Eph 1:18)...
  • The vital union which we have with our Lord, who is exalted far above all others (1:21-23). The word 'church' is ekklesia, the called out ones. We who were dead in trespasses and sins, and who lived under the sway of Satan, like the rest of the world, have been called out, and raised up out of our filth, by the grace of God extended to us in Christ (2:1-10). He has made us new creatures, to fulfill the purposes for which He has designed us.
  • The privilege of being eternally "set forth" (His eternal 'purpose' in 3:10,11) in demonstration of "the manifold wisdom of God," by our participation in the one body of Christ (3:5,6). This body is the church (ekklesia), of the called out ones in Christ (3:9-10), by which the glory of God is to be revealed to all (3:20,21).
walk worthy...- We have a high calling.
But often we do not live up to it. We need frequent exhortations (Php 1:27; Col 1:10) and the example of elders in the faith (1The 2:10). Our walk is often tainted by the darkness of this world, for which God has provided the way to return to a worthy walk (1Joh 1:7).
with all lowliness {humbleness of mind, humble opinion of oneself} - Php 2:3
It is easy to become proud, puffed up with our advanced knowledge, or with our good works. But we are warned not to think more highly of ourselves than we ought to think, lest the Lord be forced to humble us.
and meekness...- ie., gentleness, ready submission to the Lord's will.
This should not be confused with "weakness." Moses was the meekest of men. Yet, in submission to the Lord, he confronted powerful Pharaoh, and later, Aaron and the rebellious children of Israel, when they turned to idolatry. Jesus said: "Take my yoke upon you and learn of me, for I am meek and lowly of heart, and ye shall find rest unto your souls" (Mat 11:29). Yet, in fulfilling the purposes of God, he directed some very strong words to the scribes and Pharisees, whom he called "hypocrites." He upset more than tables, by His boldness in cleansing of the Temple. That harsh action was an outflow of His meekness before God.
with longsuffering {GK=makrothumia, patient endurance} - not quick tempered
forbearing {holding by, sustaining} one another in love...-
The body of Christ is made up of dissimilar members. Could there be wider separation than between Jews and Gentiles, with their diverse cultures, and differing perspectives on many matters? Yet, in Christ, they are brought together as one. Christ removed the sin which was the 'middle wall of partition' separating them from God, and from each other. But other differences remained, as they do between us. We have need of patience. Such patience requires the power of Christ's love within us.
endeavoring {giving diligence} to keep {observe, preserve, guard}...
the unity {lit., "oneness"} of the Spirit... -
This 'oneness' is amplified in v.4-6. It is the work of God's Holy Spirit. We cannot produce this unity. It is the work of God, for which Christ prayed (Joh 17:21). However, because our fleshly nature is strong, we are very capable of damaging the unity, which we are instructed to keep.
in the bond of peace. - Christ Himself is the bond of peace between dissimilar believers (Eph 2:14-18).
4 [There is] one body, and one Spirit,
even as ye are called in one hope of your calling;
5 One Lord, one faith, one baptism,
6 One God and Father of all, who [is] above all, and through all, and in you all.
Here are listed seven aspects of this unity.
  1. One Body - The true church consists of all born again believers, from Pentecost to the Rapture... all who were redeemed to God by the blood of the Lamb "from out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation" (Rev 5:9) Eph 1:22,23; 2:16
  2. One Spirit - All true believers are joined to Christ, sealed and indwelt by the Holy Spirit. The Spirit within us teaches us the meaning of God's Word, enables us to cry out to our Father, and equips us for service in harmony with other members of the called out Body. Eph 2:18,22
  3. One hope - ie., the Lord's return, after which we will be forever with Him (Titus 2:13) Eph 1:18
  4. One Lord - ie., the Lord Jesus Christ, who bought us with His blood, who has the pre-eminence and full authority over His people. Eph 1:17,22,23; Col 1:18
  5. One faith - ie., the Apostles' doctrine (Acts 2:42), the body of truth "once delivered to the saints" in the written Word of God (Jude 1:3) Eph 1:15-18
  6. One baptism - ie., the baptism of the Holy Spirit by which all believers are joined to Christ (1Cor 12:12,13) Eph 5:30
  7. One God and Father - There is a common false teaching about "the universal fatherhood of God," which declares that every human being is a child of God. Although the One true God created all of mankind (Acts 17:24-27), the Bible teaches that God is not the Father of unbelievers (eg., Joh 8:42-44). Entrance into the family of God is by the new birth (Joh 1:11-13; 1Pet 1:17-23)
    • of all - ie., of all members of the one Body, the church of the called out ones. Eph 3:14,15
    • above all - God is transcendent. He is above His creation. He is not dependent upon us. He provides for His own out of His abundant resources. Eph 3:16
    • through all, and in you all - God is immanent. He is very present (Psa 46:1). He lives within His people, and works His purposes in them and through them to His glory. Eph 3:17-21
Seven unities, suggesting perfect or complete unity... Yet, this is a unity of distinct individuals:
7 But unto every one of us is given grace
according to the measure of the gift of Christ.
8 Wherefore he saith, When he ascended up on high,
he led captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men.
9 (Now that he ascended, what is it but that he also descended
first into the lower parts of the earth?
10 He that descended is the same also that ascended up far above all heavens,
that he might fill all things.)
11 And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets;
and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers;
Unto every one of us is given grace... - We are not all the same.
Each believer has received unique gifts (1Cor 12:4-11). These individual gifts are for the benefit of the Body (1Cor 12:12-31).
according to the measure of the gift of Christ.-
These gifts are meted out according to Christ's purposes. He has designed each of us to fulfill differing roles. You should not force yourself into a role for which he has not gifted you. We each need to serve in the place for which He has suited us (Rom 12:3,6-8; 1Pet 4:10). When we serve according to His will, the Lord provides more than enough grace to enable us to fulfill our appointed roles. (Php 4:19; Eph 1:18,19).
When he ascended up on high... (v.8) - This verse quotes Psa 68:18
(Note the difference between the Psalm and our text: 'received gifts'... 'gave gifts')
As the following verses will clarify, Christ ascended into heaven after He accomplished the redemption of sinful men, who were previously living in rebellion against God. In heaven, He received gifts from the Father, for redeemed men. From heaven, Christ gave these gifts to the early church. Today, Christ continues to distribute these gifts to His people, by the Holy Spirit.
now that he ascended...(v.9,10) - There is little question that this phrase refers to Christ's ascension,
following His death, burial and resurrection. But what is meant by "He also descended into the lower parts of the earth?"
Here are three possibilities (which draw from various possible translations):
  1. descended into the lower parts (ie., the earth versus heaven) - ie., at His incarnation (Psa 8:5; Joh 3:13,31; 6:51).
  2. descended into parts lower than the earth - ie., into Hades, to "lead captivity captive." (v.8)
    'Hades' is the place where the disembodied spirits, of dead men, wait for the final judgment. Prior to Christ's death and resurrection, saints who died were held in a portion of Hades referred to as "paradise" or "Abraham's bosom" (Luk 16:22,23; 23:43). Following His death, Christ visited this place. When He arose, He took with him 'the spirits of just men made perfect.' Since that time, the dead in Christ are "absent from the body..." and immediately "present with the Lord" (2Cor 5:8; Php 1:23; Heb 12:23,24).
    [Scripture does not indicate, that Jesus descended into hell to be tortured by Satan.]
  3. descended into lower parts within the earth - ie., His death and burial (Mat 12:40) by which He delivered all believers from bondage to sin and death, and from the dominion of Satan (Heb 2:14,15). [Point 2 emphasizes the spiritual aspect of 'Hades.' Point 3 considers the burial of Christ's body in the 'grave' (an alternate meaning of 'hades,' 1Cor 15:55).]
All three of these views are valid. But note that, in the context of the letter to the Ephesians, Christ's victory over death and His provision of gifts for the redeemed, is applied to living men, who were previously spiritually dead, but now have been raised out of that death and made alive in Him as members of His one Body.
He gave... (v.11) - In the GK, "He" is emphatic.
The Lord of the Church is the One who gave these gifts.
In several related passages, the gifts refer to various abilities, with which the Holy Spirit equips individual believers (eg., Rom 12:6-8).
Here (v.11), the gifts are gifted men, whom the Lord has equipped and given to His body, for its edification.
The church is responsible for recognizing, honoring and obeying the leaders given to them by the Lord (Heb 13:17).
-- He gave 'some'... - two readings are possible:
  • "to some..." - The Lord, gives to various church assemblies, such men as are needed in that place or time.
  • "some to be..." - The Lord designates certain men for specific roles, as He sees the need. (This is the primary sense.)
-- He gave some [to be]...
  • Apostles {GK= apostolos, a messenger, one sent forth}-
    This office was limited to a very few men, who had seen the resurrected Lord, and who were directly chosen by Him as apostles (Mat 10:1-5; Acts 1:21-26; Gal 1:1,12; 1Tim 1:1).
  • Prophets {GK= prophetes, an interpreter of God's Word, a spokesman for God}-
    The apostles and NT prophets served in foundational roles at the start of the Church age (Eph 2:20; 3:5). The Holy Spirit revealed previously hidden truth to them. He used them to proclaim that truth and to record it, in the NT. Neither role exists at the present time.
  • Evangelists {GK= euaggelistes, proclaimer of good news} -
    Paul was also an evangelist. He went to places where the Gospel had not yet been proclaimed (Rom 15:20,21; 2Cor 10:14-16). Now that the gospel has reached into 'the regions beyond,' there are very few (if any) evangelists, who are preaching in totally unreached areas (as in the early days of the church). However, the work of evangelism continues, for the Gospel must be proclaimed to each new generation.
  • Pastors - Teachers -- Pastor {GK= poimen, shepherd}, Teacher {GK= didaskolos, a presenter and explainer of doctrine}
    In the Greek, each of the above offices, except 'teachers,' is preceded by the definite article ('the'). Since one article applies to the last two (ie., 'the pastors teachers'), this may be viewed as one office. Also, the word 'and' {GK= de} separates the first several offices, but the last two are connected by a different word {GK= kai, and, even}, which appears to combine the offices (ie., 'the pastors even teachers'). The pastor (shepherd) is to tend the flock and feed the sheep, by teaching the Word of God (1Tim 3:2; Titus 1:9; 1Pet 5:1,2).
    A year or two after his letter to the Ephesians, Paul wrote to Timothy, who was then serving as a pastor-teacher in that church. From his counsel, we understand that a pastor-teacher should also concern himself with evangelism (2Tim 4:5).
For what purpose did the Lord give these gifted men to the church?
12 For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry,
for the edifying of the body of Christ:
13 Till we all come in the unity of the faith,
and of the knowledge of the Son of God,
unto a perfect man,
unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ:
14 That we [henceforth] be no more children,
tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind of doctrine,
by the sleight of men, [and] cunning craftiness, whereby they lie in wait to deceive;
15 But speaking the truth in love,
may grow up into him in all things, which is the head, [even] Christ:
16 From whom the whole body fitly joined together
and compacted by that which every joint supplieth,
according to the effectual working in the measure of every part,
maketh increase of the body unto the edifying of itself in love.
(Verse 12-16 are one continuous sentence, in the original.)
...For the perfecting of the saints...
'Perfecting' is GK=katartismon, equipping, preparing, repairing. The verb form of this word is used of mending nets (Mat 4:21; Mark 1:19). Thus, the 'perfecting of the saints' refers to preparing them to be used...
  • for the work of the ministry {GK=diakonias, serving},
  • for the edifying {building up} of the body of Christ. Rather than doing this work all by himself, the pastor-teacher is to prepare the saints for the work of building the church. What is the goal?
...till we all come {GK=katantao, attain, arrive at the destination} which is:
  • unto the unity of the faith (v.3), and
  • of the knowledge {GK=epignosis, full knowledge} of the Son of God (1:17),
  • unto a perfect {ie., mature} man (ie., that the body of Christ would be complete and mature),
  • unto the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ. - The level of maturity attained by the church is to be measured against the full maturity of Christ Himself, with the goal of being like Him.
that we henceforth be no more children... (v.14)-
Those, who have reached maturity, are no longer children {GK=nepios, little children}, who need someone to watch and care for them. Mature believers will be able to stand against the storms of false doctrine and false teachers, who would easily deceive the immature. In v.14, several words, together, describe the dizzying and deceptive confusion, by which apostates sweep the ill prepared into a system of error.
The conduct of mature believers is contrasted to that of false teachers (in v.15-16)...
...But speaking the truth in love...-
The phrase indicates truth, not only in speech but also in life, exercised in love toward all members of the body.
"Speaking the truth in love..." is often misunderstood as avoiding any offense, and being warm, soft and friendly. But truth often seems harsh, when it goes against the grain. There are several Greek words for 'love' in the New Testament. 'Phileo' love is the friendly face (eg., Heb 13:1). But here, the word is 'agape.' This is the kind of love that is ready to suffer for the good of another... and that is not afraid of the consequences of speaking truth that is contrary to what people want to hear. When rebuke or correction is necessary, it ought to be spoken. But before speaking, I must ask the Lord to examine my own heart and motives, and to put His words on my tongue, to build, rather than to tear down my brothers.
...may grow up into Him in all things, which is the head, even Christ, from whom...-
Christ is both the source and the goal (v.13) of this growth.
Individually and together, the members of the body, must grow ever more connected to the Head. cp. 3:14-21
...from whom the whole body fitly joined together
and compacted {GK=sumbibazo,knit together} by that which every joint {GK=haphe, bond, connection} supplieth.
Every member contributes to the organization and well being of the body, as each one obeys the Lord's instructions.
...according to the effectual working in the measure of every part...-
ie., Every believer contributes to the growth of the body. Each member's contribution differs depending on the gifts bestowed upon him (v.7) and the level of maturity which he has attained.
...making increase of the body unto the edifying of itself in love. -
The growth of the individual believer contributes to the growth of the body. The emphasis here is on the growth of the body, requiring individual members to relate to one another in love (v.2, 15).
17. This I say therefore, and testify in the Lord,
that ye henceforth walk not as other Gentiles walk,
in the vanity of their mind,
18 Having the understanding darkened,
being alienated from the life of God through the ignorance that is in them,
because of the blindness of their heart:
19 Who being past feeling have given themselves over unto lasciviousness,
to work all uncleanness with greediness.
Walk not... - What a contrast between this passage, and the first half of the chapter.
There, the apostle pled with us to "walk worthy of the calling to which we are called" (v.1) "...endeavoring to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace." (v.3)
     The reality of this unity which exists between all of Christ's "called out" ones, was expressed in seven clear points (v.4-6).
     Yet, the body of Christ is composed of individual members, who are dissimilar. Christ Himself has gifted each member uniquely. He has provided specific members for the purpose of tending and nourishing His people (v.11), for the purpose that each individual would grow toward maturity and fill the role which the Lord has for him or her, so that the whole body would become mature, properly interconnected with one another, and to Christ Himself who is the head of the body (v.12-16).
     When such a level of maturity is reached, the body, and the individual members, will stand unshaken by false teachers or by any of the enemy's deceptive tactics.
     How wonderful is this picture! Our Lord Jesus Christ, who has called us to Himself, has joined us to Himself, and has given us the resources necessary, not only to keep (ie., maintain) the unity of the Spirit, but to increase, grow and mature in that unity, which is centered in Him. It is all of Him.
     What do you and I contribute to this unity? The harsh reality is that there is nothing good in ourselves.
...that ye henceforth walk not as other gentiles...-
"henceforth" {ie., from this time forward}...- because this is the way we were. (v.18,19; 2:1-4,12-13)
Our heritage, background and old nature is in complete contrast to the holy, selfless, loving nature of Christ. The way we were was opposed to and in conflict with the unity, which He desires us to have with Him and with one another. Yet, we need to remember, that we believers still have the old nature. In ourselves, this is the way we are. We have nothing positive to contribute to the unity of the body of Christ.
in the vanity of their mind...- ie., devoid of understanding, with no capacity for spiritual truth.
Believers can also be dull of understanding, even though God has given us His Spirit (so that we may have spiritual discernment, and judge all things according to His mind).
having the understanding darkened...
...alienated from the life of God through ignorance... blindness of heart...-
Being wilfully ignorant of God, unbelievers have no part in His life.
But believers, although born again of God's Spirit, may neglect or ignore God's Word, and remain babes. Heb 5:11-14
...who being past feeling... given themselves unto lasciviousness... uncleanness... greediness...-
Having their consciences seared, hardened unbelievers give themselves to all manner of moral impurity, with abandon, and with a growing appetitite for more. But believers, also have the same fleshly nature, and are capable of quenching the Spirit and giving themselves to the ways of the world.
20 But ye have not so learned Christ;
21 If so be that ye have heard him, and have been taught by him,
as the truth is in Jesus:
22 That ye put off concerning the former conversation the old man,
which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts;
23 And be renewed in the spirit of your mind;
24 And that ye put on the new man,
which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness.
Our former conversation {our prior way of life}, our old nature, is incompatible with the nature of Christ.
If you are a true believer, this should be evident to you, for Christ Himself is your teacher (Joh 10:27).
...ye have not so learned {GK=manthano, been so discipled of} Christ...
...if so be that ye have heard, and have been taught {GK=didasko, been instructed} by Him...
The living Lord Jesus Christ personally disciples and instructs believers who give Him the opportunity (Rev 3:20). The Spirit of Christ, within the believer, cries out to Him, desiring to be like Him. (Rom 8:6,14)
...as the truth is in Jesus... - Joh 14:6; 4:24
...that ye put off... the old man, which is corrupt...
...and be renewed in the spirit of your mind...
...and put on the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness
  • The desire of the believer's heart should be for complete inward holiness. Psa 51:5-10
  • The believer's new nature, received through the new birth, is created in the likeness of God's own holy nature. 2Cor 5:17
  • The old nature is "put off" through your identification with Christ in death. Rom 6:1-7
  • The new nature is "put on" through your identification with Christ in His life. Rom 6:8-10
  • Yet, while we live in the flesh, the old nature is still present. Therefore, trusting in Christ's victory in our behalf, we are to regard the old nature as dead, and live according to the new nature. (Rom 6:11-18)
25 Wherefore putting away lying, speak every man truth with his neighbour:
for we are members one of another.
Wherefore... - ie., on account of this (that you have received the new nature from God,
and that you have put off the old, and put on the new),
here are some things that should characterize your new way of life...
...put away lying {ie., lay this aspect of your former life aside}
...speak... truth... for we are members one of another...-
If the eyes lie to the feet, the body will stumble, with injury to many members, perhaps even to the lying eye. The new nature, "created in righteousness and true holiness" (v.24), and in keeping with "the truth [which] is in Jesus" (v.21), is incompatible with "the deceitful lusts" (v.22). The unity of the body requires all members to work in selfless harmony.
26 Be ye angry, and sin not:
let not the sun go down upon your wrath:
27 Neither give place to the devil.
Be ye angry {GK=orgizo, hot anger, indignation}, and sin not {ie., do not offend the will of God}...-
There are times when anger is justified. But we must not take justice into our own hands. (eg., Psa 4:4 where "stand in awe" is HB=ragaz, quake, tremble, be disquieted; Psa 37:8)
     Fleshly anger can lead us to sin against God. Because of anger, Moses sinned, and was not allowed to enter the promised land (Num 20:10-13). Yet, Moses did not commit sin, when he was angry with Pharaoh (Ex 11:8), and later, with Aaron (Ex 32:19-22). Why? Because the cause for anger was addressed according to God's direction, not according to fleshly reaction.
     Jesus was angry with the hardness of men's hearts (eg., regarding healing on the sabbath, Mark 3:5). His action, in love, and in the power of God, should have won them over (but did not).
...let not the sun go down upon your wrath...- ie., Don't let your anger fester overnight.
Some biblical ways of dealing with anger...
  • be reconciled to the other party, Mat 5:22-26
  • avenge not yourself... overcome evil with good... (ie., commit the matter to God), Rom 12:19-21
  • be slow... to wrath, Jam 1:19,20
...neither give place to the devil. -
To nurture the root of bitterness, is to yield to Satan's 'devices' {purposes} (of which we are not to be ignorant, 2Cor 2:10,11) and his 'wiles' {deceitful methods} (against which we are to stand, Eph 6:11)
28 Let him that stole steal no more:
but rather let him labour, working with [his] hands the thing which is good,
that he may have to give to him that needeth.
29 Let no corrupt communication proceed out of your mouth,
but that which is good to the use of edifying,
that it may minister grace unto the hearers.
Our old way of living is no longer to dominate our lives.
"Such were some of you, but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God." 1Cor 6:11
The hands of the former thief are to work, in order to earn money to assist other members of the body.
The formerly filthy tongue [which was characterized by "corrupt {ie., rotten, putrified} communication {GK=logos, word, saying, speech}"]
...is to edify (ie., build up) other members of the body, as that tongue becomes a conduit of God's grace, to those who hear it speaking. No man can tame his tongue (Jam 3:8-10), but the Spirit of God can transform the heart from which it speaks.
30 And grieve not the holy Spirit of God,
whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption.
Grieve not the Holy Spirit...
The Holy Spirit is a Person, with emotions.
  • He loves all that is Holy and hates all that is evil.
  • He loves all of God's children and longs to see them reach maturity.
  • He is grieved (pained deeply), when a child of God follows the way of the world (as described in the preceeding verses, and in those that follow).
...whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption.-
  • The Holy Spirit has baptized all true believers, irrevocably, into Christ (1Cor 12:13).
  • The Holy Spirit dwells within true believers as the "earnest" (ie., pledge, downpayment) of the purposes which God has for His children (2Cor 1:21,22; 5:5). It is His indwelling Presence which is the seal of God's children (Eph 1:13).
  • The Holy Spirit's seal cannot be broken. Every child of God will stumble from time to time, and grieve the Lord (Jam 3:2; 1Joh 1:8-10). Yet, the seal, upon God's children, remains intact, for it does not depend on us, but upon the work of God.
  • The Holy Spirit has sealed us "unto the day of redemption," when we will be removed from the present evil world, and also from all traces of our old sinful nature (Eph 1:13,14; Rom 8:11,23). Until that day, the Holy Spirit is 'the comforter' {GK=parakletos, one who comes to one's side} who corrects and encourages us when we stumble, and teaches us to know the Lord, and how to walk with Him (Joh 15:26).
  • But Beware... continuance in a state of grieving or resisting the Holy Spirit, may be an indication that you are not born again. (eg., Acts 7:51-53; Isa 63:10; Mat 12:31,32)
31 Let all bitterness, and wrath, and anger, and clamour,
and evil speaking, be put away from you, with all malice:
32 And be ye kind one to another, tenderhearted, forgiving one another,
even as God for Christ's sake hath forgiven you.
The conduct described in v.31 is in sharp contrast to that described in v.32.
In v.31, we have a summary of fleshly attitudes which divide Christ's body and grieve the Holy Spirit, and which, therefore, must be put away. In v.32, we glimpse the loving interaction of every member of the body, living in the unity which Christ purposes for us, as the Holy Spirit enables.
  • Let [these] be put away...
    • all bitterness - Heb 12:15 (the root of bitteness); Jam 3:11-17 (sweet and bitter cannot come from the same fountain)
    • wrath {GK=thumos, passion, boiling anger}
    • anger {GK=orge, anger, vengeance, indignation}
      Wrath and anger are both outbursts of passionate indignation. They are different in that: Wrath rises to an acute peak and then diminishes, while Anger tends to be a chronic state.
    • clamour {GK=krauge, outcry} - "the bold assertion of supposed rights and grievances" [JVMcGee]
    • evil speaking {GK=blasphemia, slander, speech injurious to another's good name}
    • all malice {GK=kakia, maliciousness. ill-will with a desire to do harm}
  • Be ye... (or) 'become ye...' (The Holy Spirit is expecting a radical change in our way of living.)
    • kind {GK=chrestos, gracious, pleasant [the opposite of bitter]} one to another.
    • tenderhearted {GK=eusplagchnos, lit., with good bowels, compassionate} - ie., deep seated compassion (as toward family members).
    • forgiving {GK=charizomai, from charis, to be gracious toward, to pardon, to show favor} one another, even as God for Christ's sake {lit., 'in Christ'} hath forgiven {been gracious toward} you. -
           It is only through the undeserved favor which God has extended to you 'in Christ,' that you have been lifted out of the world and placed into the body of Christ.
           In a similar way, to forgive a brother, is to extend favor freely toward him, as one to whom Christ has already extended favor. Having been forgiven 'in Christ,' how can we not forgive a brother who is also 'in Christ'?
           This kind, tender and forgiving interaction between the members of the body certainly will not grieve the Holy Spirit, for it is an indication that the members are rightly interconnected with the Head, and are being motivated and moved by the mind of Christ.

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